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"Why are thumbnails not appearing for MP4s recorded on a Sony camera, and how can I fix this issue?"

**Codec limitations**: Windows only generates thumbnails for H.264 files by default, not for other codecs like H.265, VP9, or AV1, which might explain the absence of thumbnails.

**File explorer settings**: Corrupted thumbnail cache or file explorer settings can prevent thumbnails from displaying.

**Thumbnail cache reset**: Resetting the thumbnail cache can resolve the issue, as it removes corrupted or outdated thumbnail data.

**Codec extensions**: Installing codec extensions from the Microsoft Store, such as HEVC Video Extensions or VP9 Video Extensions, can enable thumbnail generation for other codecs.

**System File Checker (SFC) scan**: Running an SFC scan can detect and fix corrupted system files that might be causing the issue.

**Disk Cleanup**: Clearing the thumbnail cache with Disk Cleanup can remove corrupted thumbnail data and resolve the issue.

**File format limitations**: The format of the video file or the device where the file is located (e.g., NAS or external HDD) may prevent thumbnails from displaying.

**Thumbnail generation**: Thumbnails are generated by Windows using a process called "thumbnail extraction," which involves decoding the video file and extracting a representative frame.

**Metadata and EXIF data**: Thumbnails may not display if the video file's metadata or EXIF data is corrupted or missing.

**Device-specific issues**: Some devices, like Sony cameras, might have specific settings or formats that prevent thumbnails from displaying.

**File system fragmentation**: A fragmented file system can slow down thumbnail generation, leading to issues with thumbnail display.

**Memory and CPU constraints**: Thumbnails require system resources, and low memory or CPU constraints can slow down or prevent thumbnail generation.

**Raw image formats**: Some camera models, like the Sony A7IV, use lossless compressed raw formats that may not be natively supported by Windows, requiring additional extensions or software.

**Microsoft Store extensions**: Extensions like the Raw Image Extension can enable thumbnail support for specific raw formats, including Sony RAW formats.

**Windows system updates**: Updating Windows or installing new system updates can sometimes resolve issues with thumbnail display.

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